Technological Application of Nuclear and Particle Physics -Segbefia Celestine, 28th April, 2020

// Omit Closing PHP Tags >?
Youth Leadership in Nuclear Industry
November 3, 2020
Team teaching – team learning towards a sustainable world
December 3, 2020
Show all

Technological Application of Nuclear and Particle Physics -Segbefia Celestine, 28th April, 2020


The study of particle and nuclear physics impinges on our everyday lives in such a way that both aspects of physics cannot be underestimated. It is therefore appropriate to discuss some technological applications of these two branches of physics. This paper established that nuclear energy originating from both fusion and fission, nuclear medicine and radiation sterilization are in fact the three main merits obtained from nuclear and particle physics with the advancement in technology. Also,concepts and mode of operation of nuclear reactors based on nuclear fission were presented.

Keywords: Nuclear fission, Nuclear energy, Nuclear medicine, Radiation Sterilization


Generally, nuclear physics deals with the branch of physics that studies the concepts of atomic nuclei, their constituents as well as interactions. Fundamental discoveries in nuclear physics have led to several applications in many fields. Nuclear physics is applicable in several fields such as nuclear power, nuclear weapons, nuclear medicine, magnetic resonance imaging, radiocarbon dating and many others. Particle physics on the other hand is the study of fundamental particles and their interactions. Concepts of fundamental particles and their interactions is encoded in what is term as the Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics. According to the Standard Model of elementary particles, elementary particles can be grouped into two forms namely, the fermions and bosons. The fermions are the spin half particles which obeys the Pauli’s exclusion principle whereas the bosons are spin one particles which obeys the Bose-Einstein Statistics. The four main fundamental interactions in nature are strong force, weak force, electromagnetic force and force of gravity. The force of gravity is however is not incorporated in describing particle interactions because on the scale of experiments in particle physics, gravity is by far the weakest among all the other fundamental interactions, although it is dominant on the scale of the universe In fact, according to [1], particle physics originated from nuclear physics and the two fields cannot be underestimated. This implies that the studies of particle and nuclear physics must go together, hence are typically learned and taught in close association. With the recent advancement in technological tools, both particle and nuclear physics have proven to play a vital role thereby enriching the lives of mankind in our modern society. This paper therefore present a review of the technological applications of both particle and nuclear physics in the next section is a comprehensive literature review on the areas where nuclear physics and particle physics can be applied

Literature Review on Nuclear and Particle Physics

There are several theoretical and experimental carried out by different authors to study the applications of both nuclear and particle physics in several contexts. First, a research study by [2] reviewed the applications of inversion scattering in nuclear physics where they emphasized on the various ways in which inversion scattering could be used to understand nuclear interactions. A conceptual applications of neural networks in hadron physics is discussed in [3] where the Bayesian approach for the feed-forward neural networks was reviewed. Also, [4] discusses Monte Carlo simulations calculations in Nuclear medicine where concepts from both nuclear and particle physics are utilized for the purpose of diagnostic imaging. Some physical characteristics of radionuclides of interest in nuclear medicine have been discussed in [5]. While advanced theoretical principles applied in nuclear medicine radiation dosimetry has been reviewed by [6], [7] also presents therapeutic applications of Monte Carlo simulations in nuclear medicine. In [7], concepts of medical imaging techniques for radiation dosimetry where for instance the determination of radioactivity in both space and time was reviewed. Furthermore, measurements and analysis of production cross sections for nuclear γ-ray over the incident energy range E=30-66 MeV was reviewed in [8] where experimental data for several new γ-ray lines was also reported and discussed. High-Precision Half-Life Measurements for the Superallowed Fermi β+ Emitters 14O and 18Ne was also reviewed by [9]. Several other applications of nuclear and particle physics can be found in [10, 11]

Main Uses of Nuclear and Particle Physics

Globally, nuclear fuel, medicine, and sterilisation are the principal applications of nuclear and particle physics in terms of economic and social benefits. Nuclear power includes the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy for heat generation, which is the most commonly used in steam turbines to generate electricity at a nuclear power plant. Nuclear power can be produced by reactions to nuclear fission, nuclear decay, and nuclear fusion. According to [12], from about 440 power plants, nuclear energy now generates about 10 per cent of the world’s electricity. In comparison, nuclear medicine helps us in the treatment and diagnosis of illness in human bodies. Also, radiation sterilisation helps to destroy micro-organisms in our food. Areas where nuclear and particle physics play critical roles in nuclear medicine include magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, proton emission tomography and X-ray radiography. Figure 1 below shows the 2019 world electricity levels displayed on the left while a magnetic resonance imaging scan device is shown on the right.

The next section of this paper focuses on nuclear power reactors since nuclear power plants make use of nuclear fission, the process of splitting an atom in two.

Nuclear fission reactors

Nuclear reactors work on the nuclear fission principle, the process in which a large atomic nucleus splits into two smaller parts. The nuclear fragments emit neutrons, other subatomic particles, and photons in very excited states. Then, the emitted neutrons that cause new fissions, which in effect yields more neutrons. Such a continuous self-sustaining sequence of fissions reflects a reaction to the fission chain. This method produces a significant amount of energy and this energy is the foundation of nuclear power systems. Many distinct forms of reactor are available. This paper briefly addresses the thermal reactor, which uses uranium as the fuel and low-energy neutrons for forming a chain reaction. A nuclear fission cycle of Uranium 235 is to the left of Figure2 and a schematic diagram of the key elements of a conventional thermal reactor to the right. A thermal reactor is made up of fissile material (fuel elements), rods of control and moderator. Uranium is the most widely used fuel, and many thermal reactors use natural uranium, although it has just 0.7% of 235U.. A 2 MeV primary fission neutron, however, has very little chance of causing fission in a 238U. nucleus. Instead, it is much more likely to propagate inelastically, leaving the nucleus in an excited state, and after a few such collisions, the neutron energy will be below the fission induction level of 1.2 MeV in 238U.. The centre of a reactor is the main unit in a nuclear reactor and is where all the heat energy is produced. This is done by a mechanism known as the nuclear fission. In this case Uranium-235 is the fissile material (i.e. the fuel for the process). The heart of the reactor consists of three parts (i)fuel rods-where the fissile material is stored,(ii) control rods-made of boron, these control the reaction rate and (iii) the moderator-slowing down the neutrons created during the reaction.

Nuclear fusion reactors

Also known as thermonuclear reactors are fusion reactors which generate electrical power from the energy released in a nuclear fusion reaction. The use of nuclear fusion reactions for electricity generation appears to be very theoretical, according to[17]. The method of producing energy in a fusion reactor requires the joining of two light atoms together. As two nuclei combine, a small amount of mass is converted into an energy of large amount. In reality, Stars, including the Sun, are plasma’s that produce energy by fusion reactions through a process called stellar fusion. Stellar fusion is the mechanism by which elements within stars are formed by mixing the protons and neutrons from the nuclei of lighter elements together. Figure 3 below shows the base structure for nuclear fusion on the left and a basic thermonuclear fusion reactor on the right side.

Summary and Conclusion

The primary goal of this paper was to review the technological applications of nuclear and particle physics. This paper seeks to present a brief literature review on areas where nuclear and particle physics can be theoretically and experimentally applied, then presents three main uses of nuclear and particle physics at the economical level. In summary, the findings from this paper reveal that nuclear energy, nuclear medicine and radiation sterilization are the three main technologically advanced implications both nuclear and particle physics have on natural beings. In conclusion, the study of particle and nuclear physics lead to advance implementation of technological tools for the benefits of mankind.


  1. W. R. Leo, Techniques for nuclear and particle physics experiments: a how-to approach, Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.
  2. V. Kukulin, R. Mackintosh, The application of inversion to nuclear scattering, Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics 30 (2) (2004) R1.
  3. K. M. Graczyk, C. Juszczak, Applications of Neural Networks in Hadron Physics, J. Phys. G42 (3) (2015) 034019. arXiv:1409.5244, doi:10.1088/0954-3899/42/3/034019.
  4. M. Ljungberg, S.-E. Strand, M. A. King, Monte Carlo calculations in nuclear medicine: Applications in diagnostic imaging, CRC Press, 2012.
  5. R. Chandra, A. Rahmim, Nuclear medicine physics: the basics, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2017
  6. B. McParland, Nuclear medicine radiation dosimetry: Advanced theoretical principles, 2010. doi:10.1007/978-1-84882-126-2.
  7. H. Zaidi, G. Sgouros, Therapeutic applications of monte carlo calculations in nuclear medicine, Medical Physics 30. doi:10.1201/9781420033250.
  8. W. Yahia-Cherif, et al., Measurement and analysis of nuclear γ-ray production cross sections in proton interactions with Mg, Si and Fe nuclei abundant in astrophysical sites over the incident energy range E = 30−66 MeVarXiv:2001.07087.[
  9. A. Laffoley, C. Svensson, C. Andreoiu, R. Austin, G. Ball, B. Blank, H. Bouzomita, D. Cross, A. Diaz Varela, R. Dunlop, P. Finlay, A. Garnsworthy, P. Garrett, J. Giovinazzo, G. Grinyer, G. Hackman, B. Hadinia, D. Jamieson, S. Ketelhut, C. Unsworth, High-precision half-life measurements for the superallowed fermi β+ emitters 14o and 18ne, Physical Review C 92. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.92.025502.
  10. S. Bagchi, et al., Observation of isoscalar multipole strengths in exotic doubly-magic 56Ni in inelastic α scattering in inverse kinematics, Phys. Lett. B 751 (2015) 371–375. doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2015.10.060.
  11. E. Pollacco, et al., GET: A generic electronics system for TPCs and nuclear physics instrumentation, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 887 (2018) 81–93. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2018.01.020.
  12. I. Hore-Lacy, Nuclear Energy in the 21st Century: World Nuclear University Press, Elsevier, 2010.
  13. J. Farfan, C. Breyer, Structural changes of global power generation capacity towards sustainability and the risk of stranded investments supported by a sustainability indicator, Journal of Cleaner Production 141 (2017) 370–384.
  14. Z. Tan, Advances in real-time phase-contrast flow mri and multi-echo radial flash, Ph.D. thesis (05 2016). doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.4803.8004.
  15. T. Busch, Nuclear data story-at nd2016: Tackling the challenges of nuclear data in the future.
  16. B. R. Martin, G. Shaw, Nuclear and particle physics: an introduction, John Wiley & Sons, 2019
  17. P. T. Farnsworth, Method and apparatus for producing nuclear-fusion reactions, uS Patent 3,386,883 (Jun. 4 1968).
  18. M. O. Hagler, M. Kristiansen, An introduction to controlled thermonuclear fusion, Lexington, Mass., DC Heath and Co., 1977. 207 p.


  1. 720p izle says:

    I visited several blogs however the audio feature for audio songs present at this web site is in fact excellent. Delia Monte Sheley

  2. “Hey, thanks for the blog. Awesome.” Evelyn Britschgi

  3. staci bieber says:

    Thanks again for the article. Really Cool.

  4. emil kitcher says:

    It is a very good useful article I like to read such articles

  5. I am incessantly thought about this, thanks for posting.

  6. I reckon something truly special in this website.

  7. joni brower says:

    Thanks so much for the blog post.Thanks Again. Great.

  8. Some really great info, Gladiola I detected this. I’m not spaming. I’m just saying your website is AWSOME! Thank you so much! Please vist also my website.

  9. toby delange says:

    I get very useful information on your page, I feel lucky

  10. Greate article. Keep writing such kind of info on your blog.

  11. gerald rende says:

    If you are going for best contents like I do, only go to see this web page all the time because it presents feature contents, thanks

  12. dog says:

    I read a great article with pleasure, I hope it will continue

  13. Yvonne says:

    You produce quality content, I appreciate you

  14. nulled says:

    I loved your blog.Really looking forward to read more. Will read on…

  15. filmkovasi says:

    Like!! I blog frequently and I really thank you for your content. The article has truly peaked my interest. Mollee Johannes Spiro

  16. 720p says:

    Nicely I definitely loved learning it. This particular topic procured by a person is very efficient for accurate preparing. Dorthea Artie Ajit

  17. torrent says:

    This is a to a great extent signal post. Thanks instead of posting this. Nedda Hayden Calvert

  18. movie online says:

    I reckon something genuinely interesting about your site so I bookmarked . Tedra Giulio Goddord

  19. 720p says:

    Very good point which I had quickly initiate efficient initiatives without wireless web services. Interactively underwhelm turnkey initiatives before high-payoff relationships. Holisticly restore superior interfaces before flexible technology. Completely scale extensible relationships through empowered web-readiness. Angelique Rogers Elana

  20. dublaj says:

    This info is priceless. Where can I find out more?| Carol-Jean Trev Appledorf

  21. tek part says:

    I think other web-site proprietors should take this site as an model, very clean and excellent user genial style and design, as well as the content. You are an expert in this topic! Haley Fitz On

  22. Hi there very cool website!! Man .. Beautiful .. Amazing .. I’ll bookmark your web site and take the feeds also…I’m happy to search out so many useful info right here within the post, we’d like work out more strategies on this regard, thank you for sharing.

  23. movies says:

    Thhis ino is invaluable. Where can I find out more? Mellisa Jan Hilaria

  24. hindi movie says:

    Absolutely composed content material , regards for information . Scarlett Herbie Newlin

  25. anime says:

    Like!! Thank you for publishing this awesome article. Lurlene Hewet Snoddy

  26. altyazili says:

    Nice post. I learn something new and challenging on blogs I stumbleupon on a daily basis. It will always be exciting to read content from other authors and practice something from their sites. Sibley Merwin Winston

  27. diziler says:

    I and also my pals were found to be taking note of the excellent points on the blog while instantly developed a horrible suspicion I never thanked the website owner for those secrets. All the boys came absolutely thrilled to study them and have undoubtedly been having fun with these things. Thanks for getting simply helpful and also for choosing this form of quality ideas millions of individuals are really eager to learn about. My personal honest apologies for not expressing gratitude to earlier. Sophi Orland Norvin

  28. turkce says:

    Well, if implement the same algorithm on different platform, the performance is obviously different. However, maybe there is some good idea that make different platforms all have great performance. And I know a smaller general-purpose RE matcher has many advantages, it will be more likely become successful for software is more convenient to maintain and update and to be applied to other products. Paula Drud Dulciana

  29. dizi says:

    Good post. I learn something totally new and challenging on websites I stumbleupon on a daily basis. It will always be interesting to read through articles from other authors and practice something from their websites. La Verne Cori Teevens

  30. google says:

    It’s appropriate time to make some plans for the future and it’s time to be happy.
    I’ve read this post and if I could I desire to suggest
    you some interesting things or suggestions. Perhaps you can write next articles referring to this article.
    I desire to read more things about it!

  31. Greetings from Ohio! I’m bored to tears at work so I decided to browse your blog on my
    iphone during lunch break. I enjoy the info you provide here and can’t wait to take a look when I get home.
    I’m shocked at how quick your blog loaded on my phone ..
    I’m not even using WIFI, just 3G .. Anyhow, excellent site!

  32. google says:

    You really make it appear really easy along with your presentation however I in finding this matter to be really one thing which I believe I’d by no means understand.
    It kind of feels too complex and very huge for me.
    I am having a look ahead in your next post, I will try to get the hold of it!

  33. CBD for dogs says:

    These are actually impressive ideas in on the topic of blogging.
    You have touched some fastidious things here. Any
    way keep up wrinting.

  34. What’s up everyone, it’s my first pay a quick visit at
    this website, and paragraph is really fruitful designed for me,
    keep up posting these types of posts.

  35. CBD for sale says:

    Hey there! I could have sworn I’ve been to this blog before but after checking through some of the
    post I realized it’s new to me. Nonetheless, I’m definitely delighted I found it
    and I’ll be bookmarking and checking back frequently!

  36. If you want to grow your know-how simply keep visiting this web site and be updated with the
    newest news posted here.

  37. cbd gummies says:

    Hi there, this weekend is fastidious in favor of
    me, because this point in time i am reading this wonderful educational article here
    at my home.

  38. cbd sleep says:

    As the admin of this web page is working, no doubt very soon it will be renowned,
    due to its feature contents.

  39. Appreciate this post. Will try it out.

  40. Hi friends, how is the whole thing, and what you want to say regarding this piece
    of writing, in my view its actually amazing designed for me.

  41. Have you ever considered about including a little bit more than just your articles?
    I mean, what you say is fundamental and all. However think
    about if you added some great graphics or video clips to give your
    posts more, “pop”! Your content is excellent but with pics and video clips, this site
    could certainly be one of the greatest in its niche.

    Terrific blog!

  42. a super cool post please confirm escort my comment section thank you

  43. Maybe you can write subsequent articles regarding this article.

  44. I have learn this put up and if I may I want to recommend you some interesting issues or tips.

  45. cbd gummies says:

    If some one desires to be updated with most recent technologies therefore he must be pay a quick visit this site and
    be up to date everyday.

  46. Hi there to every one, since I am really keen of reading this webpage’s post to
    be updated on a regular basis. It contains pleasant material.

  47. Attractive section of content. I just stumbled upon your blog and in accession capital to
    assert that I get actually enjoyed account your blog posts.
    Anyway I’ll be subscribing to your augment and even I achievement you
    access consistently fast.

  48. You’ve made some really good points there. I checked on the
    net for more information about the issue and found most people will go along with your views on this website.

  49. Hey there! I simply would like to give you a big thumbs up
    for the great information you have got right here on this post.
    I am coming back to your blog for more soon.

  50. Wow! Finally I got a weblog from where I be capable of actually obtain helpful
    facts regarding my study and knowledge.

  51. cbd says:

    Very nice post. I just stumbled upon your weblog and wanted to say that
    I’ve truly enjoyed surfing around your blog posts. In any case I’ll be subscribing to your feed and I
    hope you write again soon!

  52. Since the admin of this web page is working, no
    doubt very shortly it will be renowned, due to its quality

  53. Valuable info. Fortunate me I discovered your site accidentally, and I am surprised why this twist of fate did not took place in advance!
    I bookmarked it.

  54. Hi there, for all time i used to check web site posts here early in the daylight, because
    i enjoy to gain knowledge of more and more.

  55. Wow, this post is fastidious, my younger sister is analyzing these things,
    so I am going to inform her.

  56. This is very interesting, You’re a very skilled blogger.
    I’ve joined your rss feed and look forward to seeking more
    of your wonderful post. Also, I’ve shared your web site in my social networks!

  57. I like it when folks come together and share opinions. Great site, keep it up!

  58. I got this site from my friend who told
    me regarding this web page and at the moment this time I am browsing this web
    page and reading very informative posts at this time.

  59. Good way of telling, and good paragraph to obtain information regarding my presentation subject,
    which i am going to convey in academy.

  60. Good article! We are linking to this particularly great content on our website.
    Keep up the good writing.

  61. Hi there! I’m at work browsing your blog from my new iphone
    4! Just wanted to say I love reading through your blog and look forward to all your posts!
    Keep up the outstanding work!

  62. Excellent post. I used to be checking continuously this blog and I’m impressed!
    Very useful information particularly the ultimate part 🙂
    I take care of such info a lot. I used to be seeking this
    particular info for a very long time. Thanks and good luck.

  63. best delta 8 says:

    Greate article. Keep writing such kind of information on your blog.
    Im really impressed by your blog.
    Hello there, You have performed a fantastic job.
    I will definitely digg it and personally suggest to my friends.

    I am sure they’ll be benefited from this site.

  64. gold bee says:

    I think this is among the so much significant info for me.
    And i’m satisfied studying your article. But should observation on some common issues, The
    site style is great, the articles is in point
    of fact excellent : D. Good job, cheers

  65. buy cbd says:

    What a material of un-ambiguity and preserveness of precious familiarity on the topic of
    unexpected emotions.

  66. Fantastic items from you, man. I’ve understand your
    stuff previous to and you are simply too magnificent.
    I really like what you have obtained right here, certainly like
    what you are saying and the way wherein you assert it.
    You’re making it enjoyable and you continue
    to care for to stay it wise. I cant wait to learn far more from you.
    This is really a great website.

  67. Hey there just wanted to give you a quick heads up.

    The text in your post seem to be running off the screen in Opera.
    I’m not sure if this is a format issue or something
    to do with browser compatibility but I figured I’d post to let you know.
    The design and style look great though! Hope you get the issue solved soon. Kudos

  68. Thanks on your marvelous posting! I really enjoyed reading it, you are a great author.

    I will ensure that I bookmark your blog and will eventually
    come back sometime soon. I want to encourage you to definitely continue your great work, have a nice evening!

  69. Hi! I’ve been following your web site for a while now and
    finally got the bravery to go ahead and give you a shout
    out from Huffman Tx! Just wanted to say keep up the excellent work!

  70. Wonderful blog! I found it while surfing around on Yahoo News.
    Do you have any suggestions on how to get listed in Yahoo News?
    I’ve been trying for a while but I never seem to get there!
    Appreciate it

  71. Eduardo says:

    What’s Going down i am new to this, I stumbled upon this
    I have discovered It positively helpful and it has helped me out loads.
    I am hoping to give a contribution & aid different customers like
    its helped me. Good job.

  72. Winfred says:

    Sweet blog! I found it while browsing on Yahoo News. Do you have any tips on how
    to get listed in Yahoo News? I’ve been trying for a while but
    I never seem to get there! Thank you

  73. says:

    Hi to all, the contents existing at this website are in fact amazing for people experience,
    well, keep up the good work fellows.

  74. Nice post. I learn something more challenging on different blogs everyday. It will always be stimulating to read content from other writers and practice a little something from their store. I?d prefer to use some with the content on my blog whether you don?t mind. Natually I?ll give you a link on your web blog. Thanks for sharing.

  75. I entered according to the comments and came followers thank you ??

  76. ooo who’s who i’m in awe ??

  77. Poodle says:

    you have a great blog here! would you like to make some invite posts on my blog?

  78. gelen takipçiler rt ve fav’da yapiyor??

  79. lan ciddi ciddi çalisiyorr ??

  80. There are certainly a lot of details like that to take into consideration. That is a great point to bring up. I offer the thoughts above as general inspiration but clearly there are questions like the one you bring up where the most important thing will be working in honest good faith. I don?t know if best practices have emerged around things like that, but I am sure that your job is clearly identified as a fair game. Both boys and girls feel the impact of just a moment?s pleasure, for the rest of their lives.

  81. Hurrah, that’s what I was looking for, what a data! existing here at this website, thanks admin of this web page.|

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *