NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN FINLAND

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NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN FINLAND

In our previous articles on nuclear waste management, Finland was mentioned at the country taking the lead in finding permanent solution to nuclear waste management.

在我们之前关于核废物处理的文章中,曾提到过芬兰率先找到永久处理核废物的方法。

Till date nuclear applications has improved lives globally and still helping in combating climate change. In some countries, nuclear power represents a significant percentage of their energy mix. Just like any other industry, nuclear applications also has its related waste.

迄今为止,核技术的应用已经改善了全球的生活,并且有助于应对气候变化。在一些国家,核能在其能源结构中占很大比例。就像其他工业一样,核技术的应用也有其相关的废物。

Finland has taken the initiative to build the first long term repository that will house nuclear waste for 100,000 years to come. A site in Finland is set to use a labyrinth of underground tunnels for the storage of nuclear waste, which could become a template for the rest of the world to follow.

芬兰已主动建造第一个长期储存核废料的储存库,将在未来10万年内存放核废料。芬兰的一个地点将使用迷宫般的地下隧道来储存核废料,这可能成为世界其他国家效仿的模板。

Olkiluoto Island, Finland, is the proposed site for this long term plan. If all goes as planned, in a couple of years, the first group of 3000 sealed canisters containing two tons of spent fuel, each of about 17 feet in length from the nuclear power plants in the country, will be lowered into a vertical borehole in a side tunnel underground.

芬兰的奥尔基洛托岛是这个长期计划的拟定地点。如果一切按计划进行,几年后,第一批3000个密封罐将被放入地下侧隧道的一个垂直钻孔中,每个罐装有两吨乏燃料,每个罐约17英尺长。

The spent nuclear fuel from power plants will be placed in the double-walled canisters with the inner part of the canister made of cast iron. This design takes the mechanical stress caused by the bedrock.

The outer part of the canisters will be made of copper which will protect the cast iron and spent fuel rods from corrosion.

来自发电厂的乏燃料将被放置在双层容器中,容器内部由铸铁制成。本设计考虑基岩引起的机械应力。             

容器的外部将由铜制成,以保护铸铁和乏燃料棒不受腐蚀。

Long-Term Parking 
for Radioactive Waste (Source: Posivia)

The canisters will be installed in approximately 19-26ft deep shafts within the bedrock at a depth of approximately 1400ft below the ground.

The Canisters will be surrounded by bentonite clay which will act as another protective barrier from nuclear waste leakage, while also reducing mechanical stress on canisters caused by the bedrock.

Finally, after the installation of the canisters, the tunnels will be backfilled with clay blocks and pellets. The entire cavern and shafts will also be backfilled in phases to block human entry as well as surface water.

这些罐将安装在基岩内约19-26英尺深的竖井中,深度约为地下1400英尺。            

这些容器将被膨润土包围,这将成为防止核废料泄漏的另一道屏障,同时也减少了基岩对容器造成的机械应力。             

最后,在容器安装完成后,将用粘土块和颗粒回填隧道。整个洞室和竖井也将分阶段回填,以阻止人员进入和地表水渗透。

Storing the fuel

There has been discussion on marking the site to warn future generation about the danger associated with the abandoned site. Among the suggestions was the idea of creating a deterrent landscape that is “non-natural, ominous and repulsive,” made of giant, menacing earthworks in the shape of lightning bolts, or giant shapes that “suggest danger to the body… wounding forms, like thorns and spikes”. Anybody going further into the complex would then discover another series of stone kiosks and standing stones with information about the nuclear waste written in many different languages and levels of complexity, and accompanied by basic pictograms. Also, to help convey the message, there would be carvings of human faces expressing horror and terror. However some also suggested that marked places often draw curious visitors, so it better to leave the site without warning signs. This is a possible solution for Onkalo, although no plans have been made.

有人讨论过在填埋地点上做标记,以警告下一代人与废弃遗址有关的危险。其中一个建议是创造一个“非自然的,不祥的和令人厌恶的”威慑景观,由巨大的,威胁性的,闪电形状的土方,或巨大的形状“暗示对身体的危险”,或看起来伤人的形式,像刺和矛。任何人再深入这个建筑群,就会发现另一系列的石亭和立着的石头,上面写着许多不同语言和复杂程度的核废料信息,并附有基本的象形图。此外,为了帮助传达信息,还将雕刻出表达恐怖和恐怖的人脸。然而,也有人认为,有标记的地方经常会吸引好奇的游客,所以最好不要设置任何的危险标志。这是Onkalo的一个可能的解决方案,尽管还没有制定计划。

Finland has set the trend for the rest of the world to follow with respect high level waste disposal. So far the project seem successful and it’s expected to receive some deposits in 2023.

芬兰在高放废物处理方面已成为世界其他国家效仿的对象。到目前为止,这个项目看起来很成功,预计2023年会收到一些款项。

Writer: Yvonne Sefakor Dzovor
Editor: Priscilla Oforiwaa
Designers: Zhang Jing & Zhang Chao
Translation : Zhang Chao


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