Radon

NUCLEAR SAFETY CULTURE – PART II
October 10, 2020
Youth Leadership in Nuclear Industry
November 3, 2020
Show all

Radon

Radon is a naturally-occurring radioactive gas that results from the normal decay of uranium in rocks and soil. Like many gases, it is invisible; it is also odorless and tasteless. Radon seeps through the ground and into the air and, in some areas, it dissolves in the groundwater.

氡是一种天然存在的放射性气体,是岩石和土壤中铀正常衰变的结果。像大多数气体一样,它是无色无味的。氡渗透到地面和空气中,在某些地区,它溶解在地下水中。

Radon gas formed in the ground can be very concentrated.  Once it gets into the earth’s atmosphere, it dilutes and exists at very low levels. However, the concentrated gas can enter homes through cracks in the foundation, gaps in walls or insulation, and through the water supply. It can also be released from building materials. Indoors, particularly in well-insulated homes, the radon gas can become trapped and build to high levels.

在地下形成的氡气可能非常集中。一旦进入地球大气层,它就会稀释并以很低的水平存在。然而这些被集中在一起的气体可以通过地基中的裂缝、墙壁或绝缘的间隙以及通过供水进入家庭。它也可以从建筑材料中释放出来。在室内,特别是在隔热良好的家庭中,氡气会被截留并积聚到很高的水平。

As radon decays, it gives off minute radioactive particles. It is these particles that have been shown to damage the lungs and lead to lung cancer. According to the National Cancer Institute, radon is the second most common cause of lung cancer, though it represents a far smaller risk than cigarette smoking—the leading cause of lung cancer.

当氡衰变时,它释放出微小的放射性粒子。正是这些微粒已经被证明会损害肺部并导致肺癌。据美国国家癌症研究所称,氡是肺癌的第二大常见病因,尽管它的风险远小于吸烟(肺癌的主要病因)。

Decay chain of Rn-222

Radon in the Home

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommends taking action if the indoor radon level reaches 4 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) of air or more. The average indoor radon level is approximately 1.3 picocuries per liter (pCi/L); about 0.4 pCi/L of radon is normally found in the outside air.

美国环境保护署(EPA)建议,如果室内氡浓度达到每升空气中4微微居里(pCi/L)或更高,就采取行动。室内平均氡水平约为每升1.3微微居里(pCi/L);室外空气中通常含有约0.4pci/L的氡。

Radon Testing

In American, home radon test kits are widely available online and in home improvement stores. Short term detectors measure radon levels over the course of two to 90 days; long term detectors measure levels for as much as a year. Short-term kits are relatively inexpensive, and some states offer them for free. While kits vary, they consist of a collector, instructions for use, and information on where to send the kit for analysis. The cost for analysis is generally included in the kit’s price. Instructions are included with each kit; once the test period is complete, the user then sends the collector to the testing laboratory for analysis.

Radon levels fluctuate due to a number of seasonal and climatic influences. If your home radon kit’s result is 4 pCi/L or higher, you should contact your state radon office and schedule a follow-up long-term test for a better understanding of your year-round average radon level.

在美国,家庭氡测试工具在网上和家庭装修商店里都有广泛的供应。短期探测器在2至90天内测量氡水平;长期探测器测量的氡水平可长达一年。短期工具包相对便宜,有些州免费提供。虽然工具包各不相同,但它们包含一个收集器、使用说明和有关将工具包发送到何处进行分析的信息。分析费用通常包含在试剂盒的价格中。每个试剂盒都附有说明书;一旦测试期结束,用户就将采集器送到测试实验室进行分析。

氡水平由于一些季节和气候的影响而波动。如果室内氡试剂盒的结果是4pci/L或更高,当地的氡办公室会安排一个后续的长期测试,以便更好地了解室内全年的平均氡水平。

Reducing Radon Levels

Acting to lower the amount of radon is called “mitigation.”

The five principal ways of mitigating the amount of radon in your home are:

Improving the ventilation of the dwelling and avoiding the transport of radon from the lower levels into living spaces

·Increasing under-floor ventilation

·Installing a radon sump system in the basement

·Sealing floors and walls

·Installing a positive pressurization or positive supply ventilation system

降低氡含量的行为被称为“缓解”。

减少你家中氡含量的五种主要方法是:

•改善住宅的通风,避免将氡从较低的水平输送到生活空间

•增加地板下通风

•在地下室安装氡池系统

•密封地板和墙壁

•安装正压或正送风系统

SOURCE: IAEA
Writer: Priscilla Oforiwaa
Editor: Yvonne Sefakor Dzovor
Designers: Zhang Jing & Zhang Chao
Translation : Zhang Chao
iNuclear
清华大学核科学与技术协会
核科学科普官方微信公众号
THUSANSAT

● 微信号WeChat : iNuclear ●
● 网站website:https://www.inuclear.org ●
● 领英LinkedIn:iNuclear ●
● Instagram:info_iNuclear ●
● 推特Twitter:@iNuclear ●

1 Comment

  1. film modu says:

    I really like reading through an article that will make men and women think. Cornie Averell Lukas

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *