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Nuclear Safety

INuclear “Nuclear safety”

No industry is insusceptible to accidents, however, lessons are learned when they occur. In the aviation industry, accidents are recorded annually and they are methodically analyzed. In the chemical industry and oil-gas industry, major accidents also lead to improved safety. The public has accepted the risks associated with these industries considering our huge dependence on their products and services. With nuclear power, the high energy density makes the potential hazard obvious, and this has always been factored into the design of nuclear power plants. The few accidents in the nuclear industry have been very popular, but of little consequence in terms of human fatalities. The newsworthiness of nuclear power accidents remains high in contrast with other industrial accidents, which receive comparatively little news coverage. 

对于任何行业来说,运行事故都是大家不想看到的,在发生事故后,积极的经验反馈是非常必要的。在航空业,人们每年记录发生的事故,并对其进行系统分析。在化工和油气行业,重大事故的发生反而提升了相关企业的安全水平。鉴于我们的日常生活对这些行业所提供的产品和服务的巨大依赖,公众已经接受了这些行业中的风险。对于核电来说,高能量密度https://mmbiz.qpic.cn/mmbiz_jpg/oh7quS3D10A1s9k0uDkPp0ZSEf81qRicKUU33tLCmvXic2DbBzHH77saLpuGGtib28ZEKOp4YWo4kKBQpoMIia2DZA/640?wx_fmt=jpeg&tp=webp&wxfrom=5&wx_lazy=1&wx_co=1

意味着潜在危害的存在,核电站设计中必须考虑相关因素。在核工业史上,发生的核事故相对于其他工少之又少,但这些“稀有”的核事故常常风靡于各大新闻版面,但实际上大部分核事故很少导致人的死亡。与其他工业事故相比,核电事故仍有很高的新闻价值,而其他工业事故的新闻报道相对较少

Typical Nuclear Situation( 典型核事故场景-反应堆冷却剂丧失事故)

A specific nuclear situation was the loss of coolant resulting in the melting of the core of the nuclear reactor, and this inspired experiments on both the physical and chemical potential and the biological effects of any released radioactivity. Those in charge of nuclear power technology made unprecedented efforts to ensure that a reactor core failure would not occur, as it was believed that a core meltdown would create a major public threat and if not contained, a tragic accident with likely multiple deaths. 

一个典型的核事故场景是反应堆冷却系统失效导致的堆芯熔化,进而激发放射性物质泄露对周围环境产生物理、化学以及生物效应。堆芯熔化损毁将造成重大公共安全威胁,若堆芯放射性物质失去包容,有可能会酿成大量人员死亡的悲惨事故,所以当代核电人通过前所未有的努力确保反应堆堆芯正常运行

    NUCLEAR ACCIDENT IN HISTORY

The nuclear industry has been very effective in preventing these incidents. For over 17,000 cumulative reactor-years of commercial operation for 33 countries, nuclear power plants have experienced just three major accidents. The three significant accidents in the 50-year history of civil nuclear power generation are: 

Three Mile Island (USA 1979) where the reactor was severely damaged but radiation was contained and there were no adverse health or environmental consequences.

Chernobyl (Ukraine 1986) where the destruction of the reactor by steam explosion and fire killed two people initially plus a further 28 from radiation poisoning within three months, and had significant health and environmental consequences.

Fukushima (Japan 2011) where three old reactors (together with a fourth) were written off after the effects of loss of cooling due to a huge tsunami were inadequately contained. There were no deaths or serious injuries due to radioactivity, though about 19,000 people were killed by the tsunami.

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核工业从业者采取了卓有成效的手段防止核事故的发生。在33个国家、累计超过17000堆年的商业反应堆运行时间中,历史上仅发生过三次重大核事故。核能发电50年历史上的三起重大事故是:

美国1979年三里岛核事故:反应堆严重受损,但反应堆物质没有泄露,没有对人或环境造成不利影响。

1986年乌克兰切尔诺贝利核事故:蒸汽爆炸和火灾摧毁了反应堆,最初造成两人死亡,三个月内又有28人因辐照损伤死亡,对人和环境造成重大影响。

2011年日本福岛核电站事故:海啸致使三座早期投入使用的反应堆(连同第四座反应堆)冷却系统失效,堆芯因为失去冷却而被销毁。虽然约有19000人在海啸中丧生,但没有人因放射性物质造成死亡或重伤。

                 CONSEQUENCE OF NUCLEAR ACCIDENT

of all the incidents, only Chernobyl and Fukushima resulted in higher doses of radiation to the public than those resulting from natural sources exposure. The Fukushima accident resulted in some radiation exposure of workers at the plant, but not such as to threaten their health, unlike Chernobyl.  Other incidents have been completely confined to the plant. 

在所有的事故中,只有切尔诺贝利和福岛核事故对公众的辐射剂量高于天然本底辐射剂量。福岛核事故导致核电站工作人员受到一些辐射,但不像切尔诺贝利核事故那样直接威胁相关人员的生命健康。其他事件影响范围均控制于核电站厂区内部

Apart from Chernobyl, no nuclear workers or members of the public have ever lost their lives from radiation exposure due to a commercial nuclear reactor incident. Most of the serious radiological injuries and deaths that occur each year (2-4 deaths and many more exposures above regulatory limits) results from large uncontrolled radiation sources, such as abandoned medical or industrial equipment.

除了切尔诺贝利核事故,没有核电从业者或公众因遭受商用反应堆产生的辐射而丧生。每年发生的大部分严重放射性伤害和死亡(2-4人死亡,超过监管限制的过量辐照剂量)都是由大型不受控的辐射源造成的,如废弃的医疗或工业设备

                         SETUP OF IAEA

In 1957, The United Nations set up The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to act as an auditor of world nuclear safety and this role was increased greatly following the Chernobyl accident. It prescribes safety procedures and the reporting of even minor incidents. The role of the agency has been strengthened since 1996. Every country operating a nuclear power plants has a nuclear safety inspectorate and all of these work closely with the IAEA.

1957年,联合国成立了国际原子能机构(IAEA),尤其在切尔诺贝利事故后,IAEA参与审计世界核安全的功能大大增强,他们制定了安全操作规章和轻微事故报告规定等一系列规章、制度、章程。1996年以来,国际原子能机构的作用进一步显现。每个有核电站运营的国家都设有核安全局,他们均与国际原子能机构保持密切合作

Operating workers’ safety is a major concern at nuclear power plants. By using remote handling devices for many activities in the core of the plant, radiation exposure is reduced. Other controls include physical shielding and limiting the time spent by workers in areas with significant levels of radiation. These are enabled by continuous monitoring of individual exposures and the working environment to ensure relatively minimal exposure to radiation compared to other industries. 

在核电站安全领域,人们主要关心的是核电从业人员的安全问题。通过使用远程操控机械设备进行反应堆堆芯的一些操作(例如换料),这样大大减少了从业者的接收剂量。其他控制措施包括物理屏蔽以及限制在强辐射区的时间。通过持续监测个人接收的以及环境中存在的辐射剂量,确保与其他行业相比,核电从业人员接收的辐照剂量处于相对最低水平

It can be considered extremely safe to use nuclear energy for electricity generation. Many people die each year in coal mines to provide energy for this commonly used commodity. The use of fossil fuel also has significant health and environmental effects. To date, no deaths have occurred even in the Fukushima accident and the IAEA stated in June 2011: “to date, no health effects have been reported in any person as a result of radiation exposure.” Subsequent WHO and UNSCEAR reports have supported this.

核能发电是非常安全的。每年有许多人在煤矿开采中丧命,而且化石燃料的燃烧也会对健康和环境产生重大影响。到目前为止,福岛核事故没有造成人员死亡。在事故发生三个月之后,国际原子能机构在2011年6月声明:“到目前为止,没有发现任何人因福岛核事故产生的辐射而对健康产生不良影响。”随后世卫组织联合国安理会的报告均支持这一观点

Although nuclear power plants are designed to operate safely and securely in the case of any failure or accident, no industrial activity can be described as completely risk-free.  Incidents and injuries will occur, and what is learned can lead to a significant change in safety, as in other industries.

尽管核电站的设计是为了在任何故障或事故发生时仍能安全可靠地运行,但任何工业活动都无法规避风险。在任何行业,事故的经验反馈会推动安全领域产生巨大的变化。

如果想要更好地在科技中生存,就必须要承担风险,这尽管是一条令人无奈的“真理”,但一定不是退缩于“刀耕火种”的理由。何况,还有千千万万致力于核电事业的平凡的核电从业者,细作耕耘着,希望能够将这份“风险”降到最低。他们在不断地赋予“核”与人共情的力量,让“月出惊山鸟,时鸣春涧中”的自然与人文和谐共处的意境,以全新的方式重现在科技之中

To get the full article https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/elEC1V3y3y5aq0oxT6oIrA

Source: World Nuclear Association

来源:世界核协会

Written by: Yvonne Sefakor Dzovor

Edited by: Priscilla Obeng Oforiwaa

Translated by: Zhang Jing & Zhang Chao & Nate

Published by: Zhang Chao

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